In individuals with SCI, a variety of things can trigger AD including blocked catheters, bowel routines and sexual activity .

The Leading Causes of AD

  • Bladder: distension, Urinary Tract Infections (UTI),
  • Bowel: distension, hemorrhoids


Common Causes of AD

  • Skin: constrictive clothing/device, pressure sore or ingrown toenail
  • Latrogenic (diagnostics): , colonoscopy, suctioning, for sperm retrieval.


Other Possible Causes of AD

  • Genitourinary (GU): bladder or kidney stones, , scrotal compression, coitus, pregnancy
  • Skin: burns, blisters, bites, hard/sharp objects
  • Musculoskeletal (MSK): , fractures, trauma


Click on the videos below to learn about a number of these triggers.



Bladder muscle.
Uncoordinated contraction of bladder sphincter and bladder.
Medical examination of urinary bladder.
Medical procedure that involves special medical equipment to obtain a sperm sample.
Inflammation of the epididymus.
Formation of a bone in an inappropriate place.